Journal of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics

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2021 | July-December | Volume 6 | Issue 2

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Sundaresan Balagopal

The Application and Cogency of Dental Restorations and Endodontics in Forensic Odontology

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:51 - 52]

Keywords: Dental restoration, Endodontic anatomy, Forensic dentistry

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0117  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Dentition, its number, alignment, shape, size, morphology, and its relation to various adjoining structures in the jaw provide uniqueness to every individual. Dental restorations and endodontic treatment in one or more teeth in an individual can provide further distinctiveness which cannot be matched with another person. This editorial presents the application and validity of dental restorations in the human identification and deliverance of justice. This editorial also presents the current status of forensic odontology in India and other countries and how the possibilities of this science and art can be further disseminated for the benefit of the society.


Original Article

Wendpoulomdé AD Kaboré, Jocelyne VW Garé, Kounbaviel Da

Etiological Factors Associated with Non-carious Cervical Lesions: A Study at the Municipal Center for Oral Health of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:53 - 57]

Keywords: Burkina Faso, Etiological factors, Non-carious cervical lesions

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0112  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Introduction: This work sought to study the etiological factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) in a Burkinabe population consulting at the Municipal Center for Oral Health of Ouagadougou. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study, carried out over the period from August 1 to October 31, 2020. The study population consisted of all adult patients diagnosed with NCCL (abrasion, erosion, or abfraction). The etiological variables assessed were the oral hygiene modalities, intrinsic acidity, extrinsic acidity, parafunctions, malocclusions, and stress. Results: During the investigation period, 595 patients were examined and 82 of them had at least one NCCL, for an overall prevalence of 13.8%. Extrinsic factors (citrus and other fruits, sodas, fruit juices and energy drinks, wine and alcohol, and vinaigrette) constituted 50% of the erosion factors that were investigated. Horizontal brushing (traumatic brushing) performed by the majority of patients (82.9%) was the major etiology of abrasion. In terms of abfraction factors, stress and malocclusions were the most represented etiologies, at 42.7 and 29.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) have multifactorial etiologies. Early diagnosis of signs of wear and tear would allow taking the necessary preventive and restorative measures aimed at tissue preservation.


Original Article

Kadhar Begam Farjana, Dasarathan Duraivel, Cruz Nishanthine, Ravi Devi

Prefabricated Grid-guided Endodontic Microsurgery: A Pilot Study

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:58 - 61]

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, Endodontic microsurgery, Prefabricated grid

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0113  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the preoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with prefabricated grids to locate the periapical pathosis in mandibular molars. Materials and methods: Two adult human cadavers in which mandibular first permanent molars were selected for this study were selected for this study. A stainless-steel grid has been precisely created. To support the grid, it was positioned along the long axis of teeth on the lingual side by using putty material. In both mandibles, Grid-based CBCT planning was used for the experimental group, while nonguided CBCT planning was used for contralateral counterparts in the same jaw. Postoperatively, CBCT image was superimposed on the preplanned drill path and imported to the DICOM file. Result: Average osteotomy sites for both the mandibles in experimental groups were 1.75 and 3.25 mm for the control group. Conclusion: The grid-guided approach for apical access is more precise than the conventional technique. This study proved that the grid is a more conservative and effective aid in endodontic microsurgery.



Aruna K Veronica, Manivannan Manimaran, Shamini Sai, V Susila Anand

Fracture Resistance of Teeth Restored by Layered and Nonlayered Composite Resin

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:62 - 64]

Keywords: Bulk-fill composite, Direct composite, Fracture resistance, Flowable composite

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0114  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Composite is the most esthetic direct tooth-colored restorative material. Improvement in resin-based composite technology has increased the acceptance of this material among dental professionals particularly for posterior teeth. Composite should be strong enough to prevent bulk fracture. In this study, we compared fracture resistance of bulk-fill composites with flowable liner underneath bulk-fill. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 20 teeth were divided into 2 groups of 10 each. Ideal class II cavities were done, Group A was restored with bulk-fill, and Group B was restored with flowable composite underneath bulk-fill. Fracture resistance of the teeth was measured by a Universal Testing Machine. Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.05) in fracture resistance between the two groups. The mean value of Group A was 0.4870 kN and Group B was 0.6110 kN. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the study, it is concluded that flowable composite underneath bulk-fill improves the fracture resistance of the teeth when compared to only bulk-fill.



Sunny Agarwal, Ramya Raghu, Ashish Shetty, PM Gautham, Subhashini Rajasekhara, Priyanka Yadav

In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of the Accuracy of Three Electronic Apex Locators in Mandibular Molars Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:65 - 68]

Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, Electronic apex locator, Working length

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0116  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Accurate estimation of the working length (WL) from the coronal reference point to the minor diameter (apical constriction) is critical in endodontic therapy. Many electronic apex locators are available to precisely measure this apical limit. Aim: To assess the precision of three current electronic apex locators—Root ZX Mini, CanalPro, and Apex ID in the mesial canals of mandibular molars. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was employed to verify their accuracy. Materials and methods: Thirty mandibular first molars with curved mesial roots were selected. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to assess the length of the teeth. Samples were decoronated and mesiobuccal canal orifices were enlarged with Hyflex CM 25/08 and irrigated with 2 mL 3% sodium hypochlorite. Canals were prepared with size 10 K-file and the measurements were recorded with apex locators at marks “APEX 0/0” and “0.5 mark” as electronic tooth length and the electronic WL, respectively by visual means, and this was verified using CBCT. Statistical analysis was done using the repeated measures of ANOVA test. Results: CanalPro, Root ZX Mini, and CBCT values were very similar. Apex ID values were longer than CBCT values. Conclusion: CanalPro readings closely matched those of CBCT measurement followed by Root ZX mini. Apex ID showed longer readings.



Ramdhas Annapurani, Mahendran Kavitha, Pasupathy Shakunthala, Jayavel Nandhakumar

Revamping the Peg Smile: An Art of Rehabilitation of Peg Laterals with Ceramic Veneers and Composite Restorations—A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:69 - 73]

Keywords: Composite restoration, Dental ceramic, Lithium disilicate, Mock-up, No-prep veneers, Peg laterals

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0115  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Background: Esthetic management of peg laterals can be involving various factors such as patient expectations, minimally invasive biomimetic treatment approach, use of biomimetic materials, clinician's skills, and experience on case selection. Among various options, ceramic no-prep veneers have been the esthetic restoration in trend for the peg laterals. Case description: Minimally invasive bonded restorations were planned in order to provide a smile makeover for a 26-year-old male patient who had diastemas caused by peg laterals. Lithium disilicate-based ceramic no-prep veneers and composite restorations were designed, created, and bonded following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up. The patient had a pleasing outcome. Conclusion: No-prep veneers can be considered as a conservative means for rehabilitation which requires thorough diagnosis and vigilant selection of cases.



Nagammai Meyappan, Benin Paulaian, MS Ravisankar

Endodontic Management of Calcified Maxillary Central Incisors Using CBCT: A Report of Two Cases

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:74 - 77]

Keywords: Calcified canal, Cone-beam computed tomography, Dental trauma, Root canal therapy

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0119  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The application of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the management of calcified root canal system. Background and objectives: Dental trauma to the permanent dentition can lead to various clinical complications and its management may be considerably challenging for a dental clinician. One such complication is intracanal obliteration. Root canal calcification occurs commonly following traumatic injuries to permanent teeth in approximately 4–24% of cases which is characterized by the apparent loss of the pulp space radiographically and discoloration of the clinical crown. These teeth provide an endodontic treatment challenge in locating the root canal orifice and negotiating the canal to its full working length. Iatrogenic errors such as instrument separation and root perforation are more prone to occur in such cases. Case description: Two patients were reported to the department with the chief complaint of discolored teeth in the upper front tooth region. On radiographic examination, pulp canal obliteration (PCO) was identified and the two cases were managed successfully with the help of CBCT. Conclusion: With the application of CBCT as a guide, it is helpful in orienting the burs angulation within the pulp chamber with fewer chances of iatrogenic injury. Clinical significance: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is considered the third eye of an endodontist which provides images in sliced sections in all the three planes without overlapping the adjacent structures and it facilitates the identification of the canal orifices, canal directions, degrees of obstruction, and also their dimensions.



Pradeep N Varatharajan, Ashok Leburu, Madhuram Krishnamurthy, V Naveen Kumar

Patients' Perceptions on Root Canal Treatment and Their Experiences with It: Questionnaire-based Survey

[Year:2021] [Month:July-December] [Volume:6] [Number:2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:78 - 81]

Keywords: Anticipated pain, Anxiety, Experienced pain, Pain, Pain perception

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0118  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Both clinicians and patients care about pain and factors that influence pain perception. In the Chengalpattu population, there is a lack of data on patient's impressions on RCT. The goal of this pilot study is to look into adult patient's perceptions in the Chengalpattu area and see how they alter after therapy. The impact of demographic factors on anxiety and discomfort was also investigated. Two hundred and fifty patients were surveyed, with 270 (95%) completing both the pre- and posttreatment surveys. Patient anxieties, anxiousness, and anticipated or experienced pain were identified using modified Visual Analog Scales and multiple choice questions. The most common pretreatment concerns were future maintenance (46%) and pain (17%). Eighty-two percent of patients said they had anticipation of pain, whereas 7% said they had pain throughout therapy. Results suggest that anticipated pain is bigger than pain experienced during treatment, and that after the treatment, anxiety for future RCT was significantly reduced.


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