Journal of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics

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2021 | January-June | Volume 6 | Issue 1

Original Article

V Susila Anand, Selvam Sangeeta

Decalepis hamiltonii (Swallow Root) as a Potential Antimicrobial Agent against Endodontic Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:1 - 5]

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Decalepis hamiltonii, Endodontic disinfection, Enterococcus faecalis, Herbal extracts, Natural products

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0107  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The aim of the article was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial effect of alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Decalepis hamiltonii with those of Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, and Zingiber officinale against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: Alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of the herbs were prepared by cold maceration and filtration–decantation process. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each extract; zone of inhibition (ZOI) was assessed separately for each extract and their different combinations on both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of E. faecalis. Results: The extracts of D. hamiltonii showed a significant antimicrobial action, against endodontic pathogen E. faecalis, both independently and in combination preparations. Conclusion: Extract of D. hamiltonii can be used as intracanal irrigant and medicament in endodontics after confirming its biocompatibility.

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anjaneya Shiva Prasad, Ravi Vaiyapuri, Ragavi Shanmugam, Jambai Sampath Kumar Sivakumar, Saravana Priyan Soundappan, Chittrarasu Mathimaraiselvan

Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Fiber Post Failure Modes after Use of Three Different Endodontic Sealers: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:5] [Pages No:6 - 10]

Keywords: Bond strength, Endodontic sealer, Fiber post, Resin cement

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0110  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate the three different root canal sealers that influenced the failure modes of fiber post luted with self-adhesive resin cement. Under a stereomicroscope, the influence of three different endodontic sealers on the failure modes of fiber post luted with self-adhesive resin cement was evaluated and compared. Materials and methods: In this study, 45 mandibular premolars were tested. To standardize the root length, the samples were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Working length was determined using the Ingles method. The samples were separated into three groups after cleaning and shaping, and each group was obturated with gutta-percha and the respective sealer. For 1 week, all of the samples were incubated at 37°C. Drills given by the manufacturer were used to prepare the post area, and the appropriate post was luted with self-adhesive resin cement. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 1 week. Following that, the samples were sectioned into 2-mm-thick slices at the coronal, middle, and apical levels. The universal testing machine was used to execute the push-out test, and the mode of failure was investigated under a stereomicroscope. Result: Bio-C sealer group showed maximum mixed failure. Maximum cohesive failure was observed in the AH Plus group, and maximum adhesive failure was observed in the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex group. Conclusion: The group where the Bio-C sealer was used showed more amounts of mixed failure and better bond strength in comparison with AH Plus sealer and MTA Fillapex sealer.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Prasanna B Dhatavkar, Shalini D Aggarwal, Rhea S Digholkar, Neil V Lewis, Poorva S Kurtarkar, Piyush Oswal

Perfect Restorative Diagnosis: Myth or Reality?

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:11 - 13]

Keywords: Dental caries, Diagnosis, Radiograph

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0104  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim and objective: To summarize the basic and advanced diagnostic aids that are able to diagnose dental caries at both the nascent and the advanced stages. Background: Shift in the proportion of mineral loss and gain results in tooth caries, which is considered to be pathological. Tooth decay is a continuous process from a physiological to pathological one and is influenced by many variables. Thus, there is a lack of definite limit among healthy and diseased, owing to the subjective nature of the tooth loss and its potential to remineralize. Review results: In dental practice, the most commonly used tool is the traditional intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiograph that remains the standard for most of the clinician. But most clinicians are likely to use additional approaches for the detection of lesions, given the two-dimensional (2D) nature of the IOPA radiographs and the 3D invasiveness of dental caries. The objective of this view is to explore a well-rounded approach to diagnosis dental caries to eliminate as many surprises as possible while performing a restorative treatment. Conclusion: A diligent and methodical approach leads to the elimination of confounders and enables the clinician to arrive at a comprehensive diagnosis.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Burhan A Misgar, Virinder Goyal, Puneet Goyal, Tishya Koul, Deeksha Sharma, Tavleen Kour

Endodontic File Systems with Special Emphasis on Self-adjusting Files: A Comprehensive Review

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:10] [Pages No:14 - 23]

Keywords: Endodontic instrumentation, Endodontic rotary system, Root canal file system, Rotary endodontics, Rotary NiTi files, Self-adjusting file system

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0108  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

This article represents a thorough understanding in relation to cleaning and shaping of root canal system which is of utmost importance for the success of treatment. Numerous systems and techniques are used for effective cleaning and shaping of the root canals and management and prevention of endodontic disease. This article reviews availability, ease of use, cost- and time-effectiveness, cyclic and torsional fatigue, cross-contamination, shaping ability, cleaning efficacy and removal of smear layer, ability to remain centered, and apical extrusion of various filing systems, which are used in the preparation of canal with special emphasis on self-adjusting files.

CASE REPORT

Rugma Raj, Mali G Nair, Shiji Dinakaran, Anulekh Babu, Shabna Shajahan, Kanchana Devi, Swathi P Devadas, Parvathy D Kumar, Amitha Palliyali

Outcome of Pulpotomy Using Bioceramic Material in Mature Permanent Anterior Teeth with Traumatic Pulp Exposure: A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:24 - 27]

Keywords: Biodentin, Complicated crown fracture, Dental trauma, Pulpotomy

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0111  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the outcome of pulpotomy in traumatized mature permanent teeth using bioceramic material. Rationale: To preserve the vitality of the tooth Background and objectives: Traumatic injuries to anterior permanent teeth are more common in which complicated crown fracture needs special attention. Preservation of pulp vitality is important rather than replacing it with a root filling material following pulp exposure. This case report evaluates the treatment outcome following pulpotomy using bioceramic materials in traumatized mature permanent anterior teeth based on clinical evaluation at 3, 6, 12 months follow-up and radiographic evaluation at 12 months or any time during the follow-up period if symptomatic. Clinically visible coronal discoloration and diffuse calcification were also assessed. Case description: A 14-year-old male patient was reported at the department following road traffic accident (RTA). On examination, a complicated crown fracture of teeth #9 was noted. Partial pulpotomy was performed. Pulpotomy medicament used was Biodentin. Nearly, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite used for hemostasis. The permanent restoration given was composite. Follow-up intervals were 3, 6, and 12 months. Conclusion: Pulpotomy is a suitable alternative to root canal treatment in traumatized anterior teeth with pulp exposure. Biodentin is a suitable bioceramic material for pulpotomy which promotes dentin bridge formation and protects the vitality of the remaining portions of the pulp. Further research and clinical trials are also needed to develop a treatment protocol. Clinical significance: Preservation of vitality of teeth has paramount importance as the vital pulp nourishes dentin and also forms reparative dentin in response to stimuli.

CASE REPORT

Reshma Rajasekhar, Varsha M Sebastian

Endodontic Management of Mandibular Canine with Vertucci Type III Configuration: A Case Report

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:28 - 30]

Keywords: Mandibular canine, Two canals, Vertucci type III

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0105  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Mandibular canines usually present with single root and root canal. Two canals were reported with incidence rate of 4–12%. Understanding these variations was of utmost importance for the successful endodontic treatment. Failure to do so can lead to patient coming back with sensitivity, persistent pain which ultimately leads to treatment failure. Present case report describes the endodontic management of a mandibular canine with Vertucci type III configuration.

EXPERT VIEW/REVIEW PAPER

V Susila Anand

Role of Composition on Polymerization Shrinkage and Shrinkage Stress in Dental Composites

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:14] [Pages No:31 - 44]

Keywords: Bulk-fill composites, Composite resin, Methacrylates, Ormocers, Polymerization shrinkage, Shrinkage stress, Silorane, Thiol-ene

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0106  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Polymer-based dental composites are the widely used direct restorative materials. However, one of the disadvantages that include polymerization shrinkage, which leads to a cascade of effects like shrinkage stress, cusp deflection, enamel/dentinal cracks, marginal leakage, marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and postoperative sensitivity, needs eradication to improvise their performance. Polymerization shrinkage is the result of covalent bonds replacing van der Waals forces in a polymer. Many factors play a significant role in the polymerization shrinkage development, its magnitude, and the shrinkage stress. Viscosity, glass transition temperature, density, reaction kinetics, molecular mobility, modulus development, gel point, vitrification, degree of conversion, configuration (C) factor, and compliance of bonded surfaces dictate both the quantum of shrinkage and when it occurs and if and how its stresses are relieved. There are three efficient methods of reducing polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress. The first one focuses on reducing the reactive groups, the second one focuses on introducing new chemistries, and the third method focuses on controlling curing protocols. Increasing the molar volume and molecular weight of resins helps reduce reactive groups as is increasing the filler content. Alternative polymerization methods like ring-opening polymerization and step-growth polymerization have been very effective ways of reducing shrinkage. Debonding the fillers or using functionalized fillers or using different coupling agents based on chain transfer and dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) are promising methods to relieve shrinkage stress. Modifying the available methacrylates; introducing certain chemicals; altering solvents, inhibitors, initiators, and coinitiators; using bulk-fill concept; and utilizing ormocer technology are also catching up with moderate to immense potential to reduce either shrinkage or shrinkage stress. Among filler modifications, nanogel incorporation, among matrix modifications, thiocarbonate and allyl sulfide introduction and among coupling agent modifications, using functionalized agents seem to be the best methods in either reducing shrinkage or shrinkage stress. Though laboratory investigations have been very much encouraging the above-mentioned methods, the real test of clinical studies is not as optimistic. Long-term clinical performance of materials based on these various methods has not been clinically significantly different from conventional materials. Nonetheless, some of the new materials have not yet gone through the rigor of long-term clinical studies and hence controlled clinical trials of such materials are highly recommended.

CLINICAL TECHNIQUE

Jambai S Sivakumar, Saravana Priyan Soundappan, Arun Karthika Pandian, Ravi Vaiyapuri, Anjaneya Shiva Prasad, Chittrarasu Mathimaraiselvan

Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Different Endodontic Irrigants against Candida albicans: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2021] [Month:January-June] [Volume:6] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:45 - 50]

Keywords: Antimicrobial efficacy, Calcium hypochlorite, Candida albicans, Colony-forming units

PDF  |  DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0109  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Aim: To compare and assess the antimicrobial effectiveness of three different endodontic irrigants against Candida albicans by measuring the colony-forming units using a light microscope. Materials and methods: Sixty central incisors of human maxillary teeth extracted for periodontal concerns were collected, stored, and decoronated to a standardized working length of 14 mm. Followed by the preparation of the canal, the teeth have been contaminated with C. albicans (ATCC-10231) and cultured at 37°C for 21 days. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups based on the different endodontic irrigants employed namely group I: distilled water (n = 15), group II: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 15), group III: 5.25% calcium hypochlorite (CaOCl)2 (n = 15), group IV: mixture of tetracycline isomer, citric acid, and detergent (MTAD), and 5 mL of irrigant was used for 2 minutes. Microbiological samples were collected by introducing a sterile paper tip into the canal for 60 seconds and then shaking for 30 seconds on a vortex in a micro test tube containing 0.5 mL of sterile distilled water. Then, 0.1 mL aliquot of the microbial suspension was plated on a Sabouraud dextrose broth agar plate. Microbial growth was confirmed and a number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL) of C. albicans were recorded and validated by Gram stain under a light microscope at 400× magnification. Results: Significantly reduced number of microbiological colonies were observed on the experimental group III (CaOCl)2 followed by group II (NaOCl), and group IV (MTAD). Conclusion: Calcium hypochlorite was significantly better in its antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans for 21 days.

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