Journal of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Assessment of Smartphone Interference with Electronic Apex Locator in Working Length Determination: A Clinical Study

Cruz Nishanthine, Balakrishnan Priyanka, Ravi Devi, Davidson Diana, Dasaradhan Duraivel, Manali R Srinivasan

Keywords : Smartphones, Working length determination,Electronic apex locators

Citation Information : Nishanthine C, Priyanka B, Devi R, Diana D, Duraivel D, Srinivasan MR. Assessment of Smartphone Interference with Electronic Apex Locator in Working Length Determination: A Clinical Study. J Oper Dent Endod 2019; 4 (2):80-83.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0079

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 21-07-2020

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to determine the reliability of the electronic apex locator (EAL), in the presence and absence of a smartphone during working length determination. Materials and methods: Thirty patients requiring root canal treatment were included in this study. The working length was measured using DentaPortZX, a third-generation apex locator. Two smartphones were used in this study, an Apple iPhone 6s and a Samsung S7. For each canal, electronic working length was determined using a no 15 K-file under three different criteria: no smartphone was placed next to the EAL; an iPhone 6s with activated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and calling mode was placed next to the EAL; and Samsung S7 with activated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and calling mode was placed next to the EAL during the working length determination. Working length was determined thrice for each canal following all the three criteria and an average of the three values was considered as the final value for each criteria. Results: It was possible to determine the working length using an EAL under all three experimental conditions. The results of the nonparametric test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, was found to be nonsignificant. No significant difference (p = 0.991) was found for electronic working length measurement in the presence or absence of smartphones used in this clinical study. Conclusion: The results of this clinical study conclude that smartphones can be used without the fear of electromagnetic radiation interference to the EAL during working length determination.


PDF Share
  1. Bernardes RA, Duarte MA, Vasconcelos BC, et al. Evaluation of precision of length determination with 3 electronic apex locators: root ZX, elements diagnostic unit and apex locator and RomiAPEX D-30. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;104(4):e91–e94. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.05.016.
  2. Angwaravong O, Panitvisai P. Accuracy of an electronic apex locator in primary teeth with root resorption. Int Endod J 2009;42(2):115–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2008.01476.x.
  3. Ricucci D, Langeland K. Apical limit of root canal instrumentation and obturation, part 2. A histological study. Int Endod J 1998;31(6):394–409. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2591.1998.00183.x.
  4. Sjogren U, Hagglund B, Sundqvist G, et al. Factors affecting the long-term results of endodontic treatment. J Endod 1990;16(10):498–504. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(07)80180-4.
  5. Georgopoulou M, Anastassiadis P, Sykaras S. Pain after chemomechanical preparation. Int Endod J 1986;19(6):309–314. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.1986.tb00495.x.
  6. Fouad AF, Reid LC. Effect of using electronic apex locators on selected endodontic treatment parameters. J Endod 2000;26(6):364–367. DOI: 10.1097/00004770-200006000-00013.
  7. Katz A, Tamse A, Kaufman AY. Tooth length determination: a review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;72(2):238–242. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(91)90169-D.
  8. Morfis A, Sylaras S, Georgopoulou M, et al. Study of the apices of human permanent teeth with the use of a scanning electron microscope. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;77(2):172–176. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(94)90281-X.
  9. Stein TJ, Corcoran JF. Anatomy of the root apex and its histologic changes with age. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1990;69(2):238–242. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(90)90334-O.
  10. Olson A, Goerig A, Cavataio R, et al. The ability of the radiograph to determine the location of the apical foramen. Int Endod J 1991;24(1):28–35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.1991.tb00867.x.
  11. Schilder H. Filling root canals in three dimensions 1967. J Endod 2006;32(4):281–290.
  12. Kim E, Marmo M, Lee CY, et al. An in vivo comparison of working length determination by only root-ZX apex locator vs combining root-ZX apex locator with radiographs using a new impression technique. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;105(4):e79–e83. DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2007.12.009.
  13. Nekoofar MH, Ghandi MM, Hayes SJ, et al. The fundamental operating principles of electronic root canal length measurement devices. Int Endod J 2006;39(8):595–609. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2591.2006.01131.x.
  14. Walton RE. Endodontic radiography. In: Ingle JI. Endodontics. 6th edn, Hamilton, Canada: B C Decker Inc; 2008. pp. 554–573.
  15. McDonald NJ. The electronic determination of working length. Dent Clin 1992;36(2):293–307.
  16. Custer LE. Exact methods of locating the apical foramen. J Natl Dent Assoc 1918;5(8):815–819. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.1918.0368.
  17. Suzuki K. Experimental study on iontophoresis. J Jap Stomatol 1942;16:411–417. DOI: 10.5357/koubyou1927.16.6_411.
  18. Sunada I. New method for measuring the length of the root canal. J Dent Res 1962;41(2):375–387. DOI: 10.1177/00220345620410020801.
  19. Kobayashi C, Suda H. New electronic canal measuring device based on the ratio method. J Endod 1994;20(3):111–114. DOI: 10.1016/S0099-2399(06)80053-1.
  20. Clifford KJ, Joyner KH, Stroud DB, et al. Mobile telephone interference with medical electrical equipment. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 1994;17(1):23–27.
  21. Garofalo RR, Ede EN, Dorn SO, et al. Effect of electronic apex locators on cardiac pacemaker function. J Endod 2003;28(12):831–833. DOI: 10.1097/00004770-200212000-00009.
  22. Gomez G, Duran-Sindreu F, Jara Clemente F, et al. The effects of six electronic apex locators on pacemaker function: an in vitro study. Int Endod J 2013;46(5):399–405. DOI: 10.1111/iej.12000.
  23. Idzahi K, deCock CC, Shemesh H, et al. Interference of electronic apex locators with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. J Endod 2014;40(2):277–280. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2013.07.027.
  24. Nojima T, Tarusawa Y. A new EMI test method for electronic medical devices exposed to mobile radio wave. Electron Comm Jpn Pt 1 2002;85(4):1–9. DOI: 10.1002/ecja.1085.
  25. Hietanen M, Sibakov V. Electromagnetic interference from GSM and TETRA phones with life support medical devices. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2007;43(3):204–207.
  26. Hurstel J, Guivarc'h M, Pommel L, et al. Do cell phones affect establishing electronic working length? J Endod 2015;41(4):943–946. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2015.02.007.
  27. Sidhu P, Shankargouda S, Dicksit DD, et al. Evaluation of interference of cellular phones on electronic apex locators: an in vitro study. J Endod 2016;42(4):622–625. DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2015.12.027.
  28. Kim E, Lee SJ. Electronic apex locator. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48(1):35–54. DOI: 10.1016/j.cden.2003.10.005.
  29. Statista – The statistics portal. Number of mobile phone users worldwide from 2012 to 2018 (in billions). Accessed: November 2019.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.