Journal of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 1 ( 2018 ) > List of Articles

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of 5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 940 nm Diode Laser, and Gaseous Ozone against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm formed on Tooth Substrate: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

Disha Mehta, Pallav Choksi, Rupal Vaidya, Kunjal Mistry, Zarna Sanghvi, Pruthvi Patel

Keywords : Biofilm, Diode laser, Enterococcus faecalis, Ozone, Root canal disinfection.

Citation Information : Mehta D, Choksi P, Vaidya R, Mistry K, Sanghvi Z, Patel P. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of 5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 940 nm Diode Laser, and Gaseous Ozone against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm formed on Tooth Substrate: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study. J Oper Dent Endod 2018; 3 (1):1-6.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10047-0047

License: CC BY-NC 3.0

Published Online: 01-06-2018

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Aim: To comparatively assess the antibacterial effectiveness of 5% sodium hypochlorite, 940 nm diode laser, and gaseous ozone against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm produced on the substrate. Materials and methods: Freshly extracted maxillary central incisor teeth of human source were decoronated and vertically sectioned after biomechanical preparation. The samples were then, after sterilization, placed in Eppendorf tubes filled with 1 mL of bacterial solution containing 1.5 × 105 colony-forming units (CFUs)/mL of E. faecalis. Then, these adulterated samples were divided into four groups (n = 8) depending upon the method of disinfection used: group I, 5% sodium hypochlorite (positive control); group II, normal saline (negative control); group III, gaseous ozone; and group IV, 940 nm diode laser. At the conclusion of 3 weeks, all the samples were disinfected according to their groups and were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The positive control group (5% sodium hypochlorite) showed statistically significant results in comparison with the other three groups (p < 0.05). Statistically, there was no significant difference found between the experimental groups, i.e., ozone group and diode laser group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: A 5% sodium hypochlorite showed the highest antibacterial effect against E. faecalis biofilm formed on substrate, i.e., tooth. Both diode laser and gaseous ozone groups have a statistically significant antibacterial action on the infected root canals.


PDF Share
  1. Kakehashi S, Stanley HR, Fitzgerald RJ. The effects of surgical exposures of dental pulps in germ-free and conventional laboratory rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1965 Sep;20:340-349.
  2. Sundqvist G, Figdor D. Endodontic treatment of apical periodontitis. In: Ørstavik D, Pitt Ford TR, editors. Essential endodontology, prevention and treatment of apical periodontitis. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing; 1998. p. 242-277.
  3. Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. Clin Microbiol Rev 2002 Apr;15(2):167-193.
  4. Siqueira JF, Rocas IN. Clinical implications and microbiology of bacterial persistence after treatment procedures. J Endod 2008 Nov;34(11):1291-1301.
  5. Plutzer B, Zilm P, Ratnayake J, Cathro P. Comparative efficacy of endodontic medicaments and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Aust Dent J 2017 Nov.
  6. Hubble TS, Hatton JF, Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE, Gillespie MJ. Influence of Enterococcus faecalis proteases and the collagen-binding protein, Ace, on adhesion to dentin. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2003 Apr;18(2):121-126.
  7. Love RM. Enterococcus faecalis—a mechanism for its role in endodontic failure. Int Endod J 2001 Jul;34(5):399-405.
  8. Pinheiro ET, Gomes BPFA, Drucker DB, Zaia AA, Ferraz CCR, Souza-Filho FJ. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from canals of root filled teeth with periapical lesions. Int Endod J 2004 Nov;37(11):756-763.
  9. Stuart CH, Shwartz SA, Beeson TJ, Owatz CB. Enterococcus faecalis: its role in root canal treatment failure and current concepts in retreatment. J Endod 2006 Feb;32(2):93-98.
  10. Bukhary S, Balto H. Antibacterial efficacy of octenisept, alexidine, chlorhexidine, and sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. J Endod 2017 Apr;43(4): 643-647.
  11. Portenier I, Tuomos MT, Waltimo M, Haapasalo MP. Enterococcus faecalis—the root canal survivor and “star” in posttreatment disease. Endod Top 2004 Jun;6(1):135-159.
  12. George S, Kishen A, Song KP. The role of environmental changes on monospecies biofilm formation on root canal wall by Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod 2005 Dec;31(12):867-872.
  13. Spratt DA, Pratten J, Wilson M, Gulabivala K. An in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of irrigants on biofilms of root canal isolates. Int Endod J 2001 Jun;34(4):300-307.
  14. Pan J, Sun K, Liang Y, Sun P, Yang X, Wang J, Zhang J, Zhu W, Fang J, Becker KH. Cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro. J Endod 2013 Jan;39(1):105-110.
  15. Baumgartner JC, Cuenin PR. Efficacy of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigation. J Endod 1992 Dec;18(12):605-612.
  16. Becking AG. Complications in the use of sodium hypochlorite during endodontic treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991 Mar;71(3):346-348.
  17. Braslavsky SE, Rubin MB. The history of ozone. Part VIII. Photochemical formation of ozone. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2011;10:1515-1520.
  18. Azarpazhooh A, Limeback H. The application of ozone in dentistry: a systematic review of literature. J Dent 2008 Feb;36(2):104-116.
  19. Baysan A, Whiley RA, Lynch E. Antimicrobial effect of a novel ozone-generating device on micro-organisms associated with primary root carious lesions in vitro. Caries Res 2000 Nov- Dec;34(6):498-501.
  20. Üreyen Kaya B, Kececi AD, Güldas HE, Çetin ES, Öztürk T, Öksuz L, Bozduman F. Efficacy of endodontic applications of ozone and low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma on root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Lett Appl Microbiol 2014 Jan;58(1):8-15.
  21. Marchesan MA, Brugnera-Junior A, Ozorio JE, Pécora JD, Sousa-Neto MD. Effect of 980-nanometer diode laser on root canal permeability after dentin treatment with different chemical solutions. J Endod 2008 Jun;34(6):721-724.
  22. Gutknecht N, Franzen R, Meister J, Vanweersch L, Mir M. Temperature evolution on human teeth root surface after diode laser assisted endodontic treatment. Laser Med Sci 2005 Sep;20(2):99-103.
  23. Kishen A, George S, Kumar R. Enterococcus faecalis mediated biomineralized biofilm formation on root canal dentine in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res A 2006 May;77(2):406-415.
  24. de Souza EB, Cai S, Simionato MR, Lage-Marques JL. Highpower diode laser in the disinfection in depth of the root canal dentin. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008 Jul;106(1):e68-e72.
  25. Hmud R, Kahler WA, George R, Walsh LJ. Cavitational effects in aqueous endodontic irrigants generated by near-infrared lasers. J Endod 2010 Feb;36(2):275-278.
  26. Pinheiro ET, Gomes BP, Ferraz CC, Sousa EL, Teixeira FB, Souza-Filho FJ. Microorganisms from canals of root-filled teeth with periapical lesions. Int Endod J 2003 Jan;36(1):1-11.
  27. Gordon CA, Hodges NA, Marriott C. Antibiotic interaction and diffusion through alginate and exopolysaccharide of cystic fibrosis-derived Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother 1988 Nov;22(5):667-674.
  28. Hems RS, Gulabivala K, Ng YL, Ready D, Spratt DA. An in vitro evaluation of the ability of ozone to kill a strain of Enterococcus faecalis. Int Endod J 2005 Jan;38(1):22-29.
  29. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Dental biofilms: difficult therapeutic targets. Periodontol 2000 2002;28:12-55.
  30. McBain AJ, Gilbert P, Allison DG. Biofilms and biocides: are there implications for antibiotic resistance? Rev Environ Sci Technol 2003 Jun;2(2-4):141-146.
  31. Wang Z, Shen Y, Haapasalo M. Effectiveness of endodontic disinfecting solutions against young and old Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in dentin canals. J Endod 2012 Oct;38(10): 1376-1379.
  32. Siqueira JF Jr, Rôças IN, Favieri A, Lima KC. Chemomechanical reduction of the bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation and irrigation with 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J Endod 2000 Jun;26(6):331-334.
  33. Nagayoshi M, Kitamura C, Fukuizumi T, Nishihara T, Terashita M. Antimicrobial effect of ozonated water on bacteria invading dentinal tubules. J Endod 2004 Nov;30(11):778-781.
  34. Tiwari S, Avinash A, Katiyar S, Aarthi Iyer A, Jain S. Dental applications of ozone therapy: a review of literature. Saud J Dent Res 2017 Jan-Jul;8(1):105-111.
  35. Attiguppe PR, Tewani KK, Naik SV, Yavagal CM, Nadig B. Comparative evaluation of different modes of laser assisted endodontics in primary teeth: an in vitro study. J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Apr;11(4):124-127.
  36. Gonnermann J, Bertelmann E, Pahlitzsch M, Maier- Wenzel AKB, Torun N, Klamann MKJ. Contralateral eye comparison study in MICS and MIGS: Trabectome® vs. iStent inject®. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol2017;255:359- 365.
  37. Kurji K, Rudinsky CJ, Rayat JS, Arora S, Sandhu S, Damji KF, Dorey MW. Phaco-trabectome versus phacoiStent in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Can J Ophthalmol2017;52(1):99-106.
  38. Higgins JP, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0. London: Cochrane Collaboration; c2011 March 2011.
  39. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Quality Assessment for Case Series [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2017 Mar 3]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ cg3/resources/appendix-4-quality-of-case-seriesform2.
  40. Malvankar-Mehta MS, Chen YN, Iordanous Y, Wang WW, Costella J, Hutnik CML. iStent as a solo procedure for glaucoma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One2015;10(5):e0128146.
  41. Malvankar-Mehta MS, Iordanous Y, Chen YN. iStent with phacoemulsification versus phacoemulsification alone for patients with glaucoma and cataract: a meta-analysis. PLoS One2015;10(7):e0131770.
  42. Bahler CK, Smedley GT, Zhou J, Johnson DH. Trabecular bypass stents decrease intraocular pressure in cultured human anterior segments. Am J Ophthalmol2004;138(6):988-994.
  43. Gedde SJ, Herndon LW, Brandt JD, Budenz DL, Feuer WJ, Schiffman JC. Postoperative complications in the tube versus trabeculectomy (TVT) study during five years of follow-up. Am J Ophthalmol2012;153(5):804-814.
  44. Iordanous Y, Kent JS, Hutnik CML, Malvankar-Mehta MS. Projected cost comparison of Trabectome, iStent, and endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation versus glaucoma medication in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan. J Glaucoma2014;23:e112-118.
  45. Kaplowitz K, Bussel II, Honkanen R, Schuman JS, Loewen NA. Review and meta-analysis of ab-interno trabeculectomy outcomes. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(5):594-600.
  46. Almeida Junior GC, Arakawa L, Santi Neto DD, Cury PM, Lima Filho AA, Sousa SJ, Alves MR, Azoubel R. Preoperative tranilast as adjunctive therapy to primary pterygium surgery with a 1-year follow-up. Arq Bras Oftalmol 2015 Jan-Feb; 78(1):1-5.
  47. Bahar I, Lusky M, Gaton D, Robinson A, Avisar R, Weinberger D. The use of fibrin adhesive in trabeculectomy: a pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Nov;90(11):1430.
  48. Bahar I, Weinberger D, Lusky M, Avisar R, Robinson A, Gaton D. Fibrin glue as a suture substitute: histological evaluation of trabeculectomy in rabbit eyes. Curr Eye Res 2006 Jan;31(1):31-36.
  49. Buschmann W, Stemberger A, Blumel G, Leydhecker W. Fibrin adhesion and postoperative anti-fibrinolytic care of conjunctival wounds. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1984 Mar;184(3):185-188.
  50. Choudhari NS, Neog A, Latka S, Srinivasan B. Fibrin sealantassisted revision of the exposed Ahmed tube. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2015 Jan-Mar;22(1):115-116.
  51. Choudhari NS, Neog A, Sharma A, Iyer GK, Srinivasan B. Authors' reply. Indian J Ophthalmol 2013 Jun;61(6):312-313.
  52. Choudhari NS, Neog A, Sharma A, Iyer GK, Srinivasan B. Our experience of fibrin sealant-assisted implantation of Ahmed glaucoma valve. Indian J Ophthalmol 2013 Jan-Feb;61(1): 23-27.
  53. Dal Pizzol MM, Roggia MF, Kwitko S, Marinho DR, Rymer S. Use of fibrin glue in ocular surgery. Arq Bras Oftalmol 2009 May-Jun;72(3):308-312.
  54. Dintelmann T, Lieb WE, Grehn F. Filtering bleb revision. Techniques and outcome. Ophthalmologe 2002 Dec;99(12): 917-921.
  55. Du TT, Saffra N. Acellular dermal graft as a treatment of recurrent conjunctival wound dehiscence. Arch Ophthalmol 2009 Nov;127(11):1520-1521.
  56. Elmalem VI, Harris GJ. Occurrence and surgical management of a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cystoid space following routine enucleation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2012 Sep-Oct;28(5):e117-e118.
  57. Esquenazi S, Rand W, Velazquez G, Grunstein L. Novel therapeutic approach in the management of band keratopathy using amniotic membrane transplantation with fibrin glue. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2008 Sep-Oct;39(5): 418-421.
  58. Freeman PD, Kahook MY, Curtis TH. Glaucoma drainage device implantation in children using fibrin glue. J AAPOS 2010 Apr;14(2):169-171.
  59. Piltz JR, Starita RJ. The use of subconjunctivally administered tissue plasminogen activator after trabeculectomy. Ophthalmic Surg 1994 Jan;25(1):51-53.
  60. Por YM, Tan YL, Mehta JS, Tan DT. Intracameral fibrin tissue sealant as an adjunct in tectonic lamellar keratoplasty for large corneal perforations. Cornea 2009 May;28(4):451-455.
  61. Sakarya Y, Sakarya R, Yildirim A. Sutureless amniotic membrane fixation with fibrin glue in symptomatic bullous keratopathy with poor visual potential. Eur J Ophthalmol 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):249; author reply 249-250.
  62. Lee GA, Holcombe DJ. Surgical revision of dysfunctional filtration blebs with bleb preservation sliding conjunctival flap and fibrin glue. Eye (Lond) 2010 Jun;24(6):947-953.
  63. Kahook MY, Noecker RJ. Fibrin glue-assisted glaucoma drainage device surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Dec;90(12):1486-1489.
  64. Valimaki J. Fibrin glue for preventing immediate postoperative hypotony following glaucoma drainage implant surgery. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2006 Jun;84(3):372-374.
  65. Malhotra C, Jain AK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation: different modalities of its use in ophthalmology. World J Transplant 2014 Jun;4(2):111-121.
  66. Dua HS, Gomes JA, King AJ, Maharajan VS. The amniotic membrane in ophthalmology. Surv Ophthalmol 2004 Jan-Feb;49(1):51-77.
  67. Shimmura S, Shimazaki J, Ohashi Y, Tsubota K. Antiinflammatory effects of amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface disorders. Cornea 2001 May;20(4):408-413.
  68. Yazdani S, Mahboobipour H, Pakravan M, Doozandeh A, Ghahari E. Adjunctive mitomycin c or amniotic membrane transplantation for Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation: a randomized clinical trial. J Glaucoma 2016 May;25(5):415-421.
  69. Sheha H, Kheirkhah A, Taha H. Amniotic membrane transplantation in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C for refractory glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2008 Jun-Jul;17(4):303-307.
  70. Khairy HA, Elsawy MF. Trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C versus trabeculectomy with amniotic membrane transplant: a medium-term randomized controlled trial. J Glaucoma 2015 Sep;24(7):556-559.
  71. Rauscher FM, Barton K, Budenz DL, Feuer WJ, Tseng SC. Long-term outcomes of amniotic membrane transplantation for repair of leaking glaucoma filtering blebs. Am J Ophthalmol 2007 Jun;143(6):1052-1054.
  72. Sethi P, Patel RN, Goldhardt R, Ayyala RS. Conjunctival advancement with subconjunctival amniotic membrane draping technique for leaking cystic blebs. J Glaucoma 2016 Feb;25(2):188-192.
  73. Kitagawa K, Yanagisawa S, Watanabe K, Yunoki T, Hayashi A, Okabe M, Nikaido T. A hyperdry amniotic membrane patch using a tissue adhesive for corneal perforations and bleb leaks. Am J Ophthalmol 2009 Sep;148(3):383-389.
  74. Nagai-Kusuhara A, Nakamura M, Fujioka M, Negi A. Longterm results of amniotic membrane transplantation-assisted bleb revision for leaking blebs. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2008 Apr;246(4):567-571.
  75. Rai P, Lauande-Pimentel R, Barton K. Amniotic membrane as an adjunct to donor sclera in the repair of exposed glaucoma drainage devices. Am J Ophthalmol 2005 Dec;140(6): 1148-1152.
  76. Ainsworth G, Rotchford A, Dua HS, King AJ. A novel use of amniotic membrane in the management of tube exposure following glaucoma tube shunt surgery. Br J Ophthalmol 2006 Apr;90(4):417-419.
  77. Papadaki TG, Siganos CS, Zacharopoulos IP, Panteleontidis V, Charissis SK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage device implantation. J Glaucoma 2007 Jan;16(1):171-172.
  78. Mulder EJ, Leiblum DM, Visser GH. Fetal breathing movements in late diabetic pregnancy: relationship to fetal heart rate patterns and Braxton Hicks’ contractions. Early Hum Dev 1995 Nov;43(3):225-232.
  79. Schulte FJ, Michaelis R, Nolte R, Albert G, Parl U, Lasson U. Brain and behavioral maturation in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. I. Nerve conduction and EEG patterns. Neuropadiatrie 1969 Jan-Jul;1(1):24-35.
  80. Devoe LD, Youssef AA, Castillo RA, Croom CS. Fetal biophysical activities in third-trimester pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994 Aug;171(2):298-303.
  81. Dierker LJ Jr, Pillay S, Sorokin Y, Rosen MG. The change in fetal activity periods in diabetic and nondiabetic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982 May;143(2):181-185.
  82. Doherty NN, Hepper PG. Habituation in fetuses of diabetic mothers. Early Hum Dev 2000 Aug;59(2):85-93.
  83. Kainer F, Prechtl HF, Engele H, Einspieler C. Assessment of the quality of general movements in fetuses and infants of women with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Early Hum Dev 1997 Nov;50(1):13-25.
  84. Mulder EJ, O'Brien MJ, Lems YL, Visser GH, Prechtl HF. Body and breathing movements in near-term fetuses and newborn infants of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1990 Nov;24(2):131-152.
  85. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. I. Early growth patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):91-106.
  86. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. II. Emergence of specific movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):107-115.
  87. Mulder EJ, Visser GH. Impact of early growth delay on subsequent fetal growth and functional development: a study on diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 1992 Dec;31(2):91-95.
  88. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Bekedam DJ, Prechtl HF. Emergence of behavioral states in fetuses of type-1 diabetic women. Early Hum Dev 1987 Jul;15(4):231-251.
  89. Mulder EJ, Visser GH, Morssink LP, de Vries JI. Growth and motor development in fetuses of women with type-1 diabetes. III. First trimester quantity of fetal movement patterns. Early Hum Dev 1991 May;25(2):117-133.
  90. Aberg A, Westbom L, Kallen B. Congenital malformations among infants whose mothers had gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes. Early Hum Dev 2001 Mar;61(2):85-95.
  91. Deregnier RA, Nelson CA, Thomas KM, Wewerka S, Georgieff MK. Neurophysiologic evaluation of auditory recognition memory in healthy newborn infants and infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 2000 Dec;137(6):777-784.
  92. Nelson CA, Wewerka S, Thomas KM, Tribby-Walbridge S, deRegnier R, Georgieff M. Neurocognitive sequelae of infants of diabetic mothers. Behav Neurosci 2000 Oct;114(5):950-956.
  93. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Infant of the diabetic mother. Semin Perinatol 1994 Oct;18(5):459-469.
  94. Reece EA, Homko CJ. Why do diabetic women deliver malformed infants? Clin Obstet Gynecol 2000 Mar;43(1):32-45.
  95. Rizzo T, Metzger BE, Burns WJ, Burns K. Correlations between antepartum maternal metabolism and intelligence of offspring. N Engl J Med 1991 Sep;325(13):911-916.
  96. Rizzo TA, Metzger BE, Dooley SL, Cho NH. Early malnutrition and child neurobehavioral development: insights from the study of children of diabetic mothers. Child Dev 1997 Feb;68(1):26-38.
  97. Schwartz R, Teramo KA. Effects of diabetic pregnancy on the fetus and newborn. Semin Perinatol 2000 Apr;24(2):120-135.
  98. Vaarasmaki MS, Hartikainen A, Anttila M, Pramila S, Koivisto M. Factors predicting peri- and neonatal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 2000 Jul;59(1):61-70.
  99. Robertson SS, Dierker LJ. Fetal cyclic motor activity in diabetic pregnancies: sensitivity to maternal blood glucose. Dev Psychobiol 2003 Jan;42(1):9-16.
  100. Accardo PJ, Blondis TA, Whitman BY. Disorders of attention and activity level in a referral population. Pediatrics 1990 Mar;85(3 Pt 2):426-431.
  101. Ornoy A, Uriel L, Tennenbaum A. Inattention, hyperactivity and speech delay at 2-4 years of age as a predictor for ADDADHD syndrome. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci 1993;30(3):155-163.
  102. Smyth TR. Impaired motor skill (clumsiness) in otherwise normal children: a review. Child Care Health Dev 1992 Sep-Oct;18(5):283-300.
  103. Petersen MB, Pedersen SA, Greisen G, Pedersen JF, Mølsted- Pedersen L. Early growth delay in diabetic pregnancy: relation to psychomotor development at age 4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988 Feb;296(6622):598-600.
  104. Sells CJ, Robinson NM, Brown Z, Knopp RH. Long-term developmental follow-up of infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 1994 Jul;125(1):S9-S17.
  105. Vladareanu R, Lebit D, Constantinescu S. Ultrasound assessment of fetal neurobehaviour in high risk pregnancies. DSJUOG 2012 Apr-Jun;6(2):132-147.
  106. Talic A, Kurjak A, Ahmed B, Stanojevic M, Predojevic M, Kadic AS, Di Renzo GC. The potential of 4D sonography in the assessment of fetal behavior in high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011 Jul;24(7):948-954.
  107. Bekedam DJ, Visser GH, de Vries JJ, Prechtl HF. Motor behaviour in the growth retarded fetus. Early Hum Dev 1985 Nov;12(2):155-165.
  108. Cioni G, Prechtl HF. Preterm and early postterm motor behaviour in low-risk premature infants. Early Hum Dev 1990 Sep;23(3):159-191.
  109. Seme-Ciglenecki P. Predictive value of assessment of general movements for neurological development of highrisk preterm infants: comparative study. Croat Med J 2003 Dec;44(6):721-727.
  110. Abo-Yaqoub S, Kurjak A, Mohammed AB, Shadad A, Abdel-Maaboud M. The role of 4-D ultrasonography in prenatal assessment of fetal neurobehaviour and prediction of neurological outcome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012 Mar;25(3):231-236.
  111. Athanasiadis AP, Mikos T, Tambakoudis GP, Theodoridis TD, Papastergiou M, Assimakopoulos E, Tarlatzis BC. Neurodevelopmental fetal assessment using KANET scoring system in low and high-risk pregnancies. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2013 Mar;26(4):363-368.
  112. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, Chang J, Yildiz BO, Laven JS, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25
  113. Sirmans SM, Pate KA. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 2014; 6:1-13.
  114. Fauser BC, Diedrich K, Bouchard P, Domínguez F, Matzuk M, Franks S, Hamamah S, Simón C, Devroey P, Ezcurra D, et al. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction. Human Reproduction Update 2011 Nov;17(6):829-847.
  115. Balen A, Conway G, Kaltsas G. Polycystic ovary syndrome: the spectrum of the disorder in 1741 patients. Hum Reprod 1995 Aug;10(8):2107-2111.
  116. Azziz R, Sanchez L, Knochenhauer ES, Moran C, Lazenby J, Stephens KC, Taylor K, Boots LR. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004 Feb;89(2):453-462.
  117. Wild S, Pierpoint T, McKeigue P, Jacobs H. Cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome at longterm follow-up: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000 May;52(5):595-600.
  118. Hollinrake E, Abreu A, Maifeld M, Van Voorhis BJ, Dokras A. Increased risk of depressive disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2007 Jun;87(6): 1369-1376.
  119. Zawadski JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Givens JHF, Merriman G, editors. The polycystic ovary syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992. p. 377-384.
  120. Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25.
  121. Azziz R, Carmina E, DeWailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Janssen OE, Legro RS, Norman RJ, Taylor AE, et al. Position statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-4245.
  122. Lujan ME, Jarrett BY, Brooks ED, Reines JK, Peppin AK, Muhn N, Haider E, Pierson RA, Chizen DR. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume. Hum Reprod 2013 May;28(5):1361-1368.
  123. Badawy A, Elnashar A. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome. Int J Womens Health 2011 Feb;3:25-35.
  124. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No 108: Polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2009 Oct;114(4):936-949.
  125. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2008 Mar;89(3): 505-522.
  126. Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2013 Jul;373(1-2):77-82.
  127. Berridge DL, Winter TC. Saline infusion sonohysterography: technique, indications, and imaging findings. J Ultrasound Med 2004 Jan;23(1):97-112.
  128. Allison SJ, Horrow MM, Kim HY, Lev-Toaff AS. Salineinfused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success. Radiographics 2011 Nov-Dec;31(7):1991-2004.
  129. O'Neill MJ. Sonohysterography. Radiol Clin North Am 2003 Jul;41(4):781-797.
  130. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2002 Apr;102(1):42-47.
  131. Lindheim SR, Adsuar N, Kushner DM, Pritts EA, Olive DL. Sonohysterography: a valuable tool in evaluating the female pelvis. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2003 Nov;58(11):770-784.
  132. Lindheim SR, Sprague C, Winter TC. Hysterosalpingography and sonohysterography: lessons in technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006 Jan;186(1):24-29.
  133. Jeanty P, Besnard S, Arnold A, Turner C, Crum P. Air-contrast sonohysterography as a first step assessment of tubal patency. J Ultrasound Med 2000 Aug;19(8):519-527.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.