Effects of Bleaching Agents, Neutral Fluoride Gels, and Surface Sealants on Enamel Surface Roughness
Burak Gümüştaş, Özge Gürbüz, Begüm G Efes
Citation Information :
Gümüştaş B, Gürbüz Ö, Efes BG. Effects of Bleaching Agents, Neutral Fluoride Gels, and Surface Sealants on Enamel Surface Roughness. J Oper Dent Endod 2017; 2 (2):74-78.
Copyright © 2017; The Author(s).
The aim of this
in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness of enamel after the application of different bleaching agents and to determine the effect of fluoride and bonding agent application on the roughness of bleached enamel.
Materials and methods
Forty-two dental slice polished enamel surfaces were randomly assigned to six groups. The surfaces of the slices were treated with 30% carbamide peroxide (CP) (groups I to III), or 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (groups IV to VI). Groups I and IV were only bleached. Topical fluoride was applied to the bleached surface of groups II and V. Groups III and VI were covered with a bonding agent. The surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Data were subjected to analysis of one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests (p > 0.05).
There were no statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of the untreated control specimens and the specimens treated with the bleaching materials, fluoride gel, and dental bonding agent (p > 0.05).
Bleaching treatment with 38% HP and 30% CP does not alter enamel surface roughness.
The application of topical neutral sodium fluoride agents and dental bonding agents does not have any influence on enamel surface roughness.
How to cite this article
Gümüştaş B, Gürbüz Ö, Efes BG. Effects of Bleaching Agents, Neutral Fluoride Gels, and Surface Sealants on Enamel Surface Roughness. J Oper Dent Endod 2017;2(2):74-78.
A review of the efficacy of tooth bleaching. Dent Update 2009 Nov;36(9):537-538, 541-544, 547-548.
Dental bleaching techniques; Hydrogen-carbamide peroxides and light sources for activation, an update. Mini review article. Open Dent J 2015 Jan;8:264-268.
Hydrogen peroxide tooth-whitening (bleaching) products: review of adverse effects and safety issues. Br Dent J 2006 Apr;200(7):371-376.
Tooth bleaching-a critical review of the biological aspects. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 2003;14(4): 292-304.
Micromorphology of enamel surface after vital tooth bleaching. J Endod 2007 May;33(5):607-610.
Diffusion of peroxides through dentine in vitro with and without prior use of a desensitizing varnish. Clin Oral Investig 2011 Dec;15(6):863-868.
Clinical evaluation of in-office dental bleaching treatments with and without the use of light-activation sources. Oper Dent 2008 Jan-Feb;33(1):15-22.
Effect of light activation on tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching. Oper Dent 2011 May-Jun;36(3):251-257.
Assessment of tooth sensitivity using a desensitizer before light-activated bleaching. Oper Dent 2011 Jan-Feb;36(1):12-17.
Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of different bleaching therapies in vital teeth. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2012 Jun;32(3):303-309.
Evaluation of side effects and patients' perceptions during tooth bleaching. J Esthet Restor Dent 2007;19(6):355-364.
Treating sensitivity during tooth whitening. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2005 Sep;26(9 Suppl 3):11-20.
Making a clinical decision for vital tooth bleaching: at-home or in-office? Compend Contin Educ Dent 1998 Aug;19(8):831-838.
Tray delivery of potassium nitrate-fluoride to reduce bleaching sensitivity. Quintessence Int 2001 Feb;32(2):105-109.
The effect of fluoride gel use on bleaching sensitivity: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 2008 May;139(5):592-597.
Effect of fluoride treatment on remineralization of bleached enamel. J Oral Rehabil 1997 Apr;24(4):282-286.
Susceptibility of enamel surfaces to demineralization after application of fluoridated carbamide peroxide gels. Caries Res 2003 Mar-Apr;37(2):93-99.
Effect of different peroxide bleaching regimens and subsequent fluoridation on the hardness of human enamel and dentin. J Prosthet Dent 2004 Oct;92(4):337-342.
Demineralization effects of 2 bleaching procedures on enamel surfaces with and without post-treatment fluoride application. Oper Dent 2006 Nov-Dec;31(6):705-709.
Effects of new formulas of bleaching gel and fluoride application on enamel microhardness: an in vitro study. Oper Dent 2007 Nov-Dec;32(6):589-594.
Carbamide peroxide bleaching agents: effects on surface roughness of enamel, composite and porcelain. Clin Oral Investig 2006 Mar;10(1):23-28.
Effect of enamel protective agents on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Prog Orthod 2014 Jul;15:34.
A review of direct orthodontic bonding. Br J Orthod 1976;2(3):171-178.
Enamel sealants: a clinical evaluation of their value during fixed appliance therapy. Eur J Orthod 1994 Feb;16(1):19-25.
Durability of the antierosive effect of surfaces sealants under erosive abrasive conditions. Acta Odontol Scand 2013 Sep;71(5):1188-1194.
Inhibition of mineral loss at the enamel/sealant interface of fissures sealed with fluoride-and non-fluoride containing dental materials in vitro. Acta Odontol Scand 2006 Nov;64(6):376-383.
In vivo effectiveness of enamel sealants around orthodontic brackets. J Orofac Orthop 2013 Nov;74(6):447-457.
Effects of coating materials on nanoindentation hardness of enamel and adjacent areas. Dent Mater 2016 Jun;32(6):807-816.
The long-term effectiveness of five current desensitizing products on cervical dentine sensitivity. J Oral Rehabil 2004 Apr;31(4):351-356.
Effects of a carbamide peroxide agent and desensitizing dentifrices on enamel microhardness. Am J Dent 2003 Feb;16(1):42-46.
A safety study in vitro for the effects of an in-office bleaching system on the integrity of enamel and dentine. J Dent 2004 Sep;32(7):581-590.
Influence of different bleaching systems on fracture toughness and hardness of enamel. Oper Dent 2004 Mar-Apr;29(2):188-195.
Subsurface microhardness of enamel and dentin after different external bleaching procedures. Am J Dent 2005 Feb;18(1):8-12.
AFM-based nanomechanical properties and storage of dentin and enamel. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc. 2001;676:Y.3.27.1-Y.3.27.5.
Bleaching agents with varying concentrations of carbamide and/or hydrogen peroxides: effect on dental microhardness and roughness. J Esthet Restor Dent 2008;20(6):395-404.
Inhibition of enamel demineralization by an enamel sealant, Pro Seal: an in-vitro study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008 Apr;133(4 Suppl):S88-S94.
The resistance of superficially sealed enamel to wear and carious attack in vitro. J Oral Rehabil 1980 Jul;7(4):299-305.