Hereditary Disorders of Dentin: Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II and Dentin Dysplasia Type II
1,3Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Dr M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Corresponding Author: Angambakkam Rajasekaran PradeepKumar, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Dr M.G.R. Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Phone: +91 9840135711, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
How to cite this article Shanmugam S, Manigandan K, PradeepKumar AR. Hereditary Disorders of Dentin: Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Type II and Dentin Dysplasia Type II. J Oper Dent Endod 2020;5(1):51–55.
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None
Dentin is a mineralized tissue in tooth, produced from odontoblasts, that differentiates from the mesenchymal cells of dental papilla. Hereditary dentin defects are broadly classified into two types, namely, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI – type I and II) and dentin dysplasia (DD – type I and II). DGI is an autosomal dominant hereditary disorder, and DD is a rare hereditary disturbance of dentin formation that affects both the primary and the permanent dentition. The purpose of this report was to present a case of DGI–type II and a case of DD–type II to highlight the importance of diagnosing hereditary dentin disorders.
Keywords: Dentin, Dentin discoloration, Dentin disorders, Dentin dysplasia, Dentinogensis imperfecta..
Dentin is a mineralized tissue forming the the body of a tooth, which serves as a protective covering for the pulp and supports overlying enamel and cementum. Mature dentin is about 70% mineral, 20% organic matrix, and 10% water by weight. Dentin is the product of specialized cells called odontoblasts.1
Hereditary developmental disorders affecting dentin are rare anomalies occurring due to a genetic defect in structural or regulatory proteins in dentin. They include dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI), dentin dysplasia (DD), regional odontodysplasia, and dentin hypocalcification.2
DGI is a hereditary autosomal dominant disorder of dentin formation characterized by opalescent blue to brownish discoloration of teeth.3 It can also be associated with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI).4 Shields et al. classified DGI into three types: DGI-I, associated with OI and resulting from mutations in collagen type I genes; DGI-II, which manifests clinically in teeth, similar to DGI-I but in the absence of OI; and DGI-III, a phenotype characterized by large pulp chambers.5 In DGI type II, both the primary and the permanent dentitions are affected, whereas in type I the primary dentition is predominantly affected.5
DGI-II is one of the most common inherited disorders and affects approximately one person in 8,000.6 DGI-II occurs due to mutations in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene.7 The color of teeth can vary from brown to blue and is sometimes described as amber or gray.3,5 Enamel can show hypoplastic or hypocalcified defects in about one-third of the patients, and it tends to separate from the defective dentin.7
DD is an autosomal dominant disturbance of dentin formation characterized by normal enamel, atypical dentin formation, and anomalous pulpal morphology.5 Witkop in 1972 classified DD into type I: Radicular DD and type II: Coronal DD.3
DD type I was illustrated as rootless teeth. It commonly affects the radicular portions of both the primary and the permanent teeth and results in teeth with short roots and mobility with a incidence of 1 in 100,000.5,6
DD type II is an unusual dentin disorder which is characterized by yellow, brown, or amber-colored translucent primary teeth along with complete pulpal obliteration. The permanent teeth are usually seen with normal appearance. Roots are normal in size and shape with a “thistle tube” shaped pulp chamber with denticles. Histologically, teeth with DD are characterized by alterations in dentine (e.g. narrower dentinal tubules, reduced number of tubules, and irregular collagen organization), alterations to the dentino-enamel junction, and increased quantum of rodless enamel compared to healthy teeth.8
This article presents two cases, one with DGI type II and another with DD type II.
A 24-year-old female patient reported to a private dental clinic with a chief complaint of gingival bleeding. There was no relevant past medical history. Patient had a previous dental history of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgical therapy 4 years ago. Specifically, she had a class III malocclusion and had undergone orthognathic surgical procedure (sagittal split osteotomy) for correction of the same. General examination revealed no abnormalities. On clinical examination, all teeth were yellowish to amber brown in color (Fig. 1). There was no clinical evidence of enamel loss and attrition. The orthopantomogram (OPG) (Fig. 2) revealed short roots with pulpal oblitreration and bulbous crowns along with cervical constriction. OPG also revealed a surgical plate on the body of the mandible. The patient was provisionally diagnosed with DGI type II with generalized gingivitis.
Appropriate periodontal treatment was done. Esthetic treatment options including bleaching and veneers were explained to the patient, and the patient was advised to come for regular recall dental visits for monitoring DGI II.
A 10-year-old female patient came to the private dental clinic with a chief complaint of fractured front teeth. There was no relevant past medical history. Patient revealed a past dental history of trauma six months ago with complete crown fracture in upper front tooth region. General examination revealed all vital signs within normal range, with no pallor, icterus, cyanosis, clubbing, or edema. Intraoral examination revealed fracture of crown en masse in 11 and 21 as was evident clinically, and radiographic evaluation revealed root stumps in relation to 11 and 21 (Fig. 3). Other findings include clinically missing 13 and 23 (Fig. 4). Clinical examination also revealed enamel with normal color, texture, and consistency with minimal attrition. There was no pitting or softening of enamel. On pulp sensibility testing 12, 22, and mandibular anteriors responded within limits.
Intraoral periapical radiographs revealed teeth having normal enamel thickness. However, the dentin was found to be very thin. Pulp chambers were enlarged and extending into the roots; however, the root length was normal. Sudden constriction was noticed at the base of the pulp chamber along with very thin, narrow root canals revealing a typical “thistle tube appearance in mandibular anteriors as well as in maxillary and mandibular posteriors” (Figs 5 to 8). Since the patient was 10 years old, root formation was not complete in both maxillary and mandibular premolars with the appearance of periapical radiolucency.
When the parents were interviewed, no relevant family history was apparent. Differential diagnoses considered were DGI type I, DD type I, DD type II, and odontodysplasia.
A provisional diagnosis of DD type II—autosomal dominant hereditary disorder—was arrived at due to the radiographic appearance of thistle–tube appearance of pulp and root canal space calcification in mandibular anterior, mandibular posterior, and maxillary posterior teeth (Figs 5 to 8). In this case, maxillary and mandibular premolars were associated with the appearance of periapical radiolucency. Also, root formation was not complete. However, no treatment was done, as the teeth were not carious or otherwise defective. It was decided to observe and wait for complete root formation.
In this case of DD type II, no treatment was done for maxillary or mandibular posterior teeth or existing anterior teeth. However, both 11 and 21 root stumps were planned for extraction followed by replacement. Patient was advised to come for regular recall dental visits for monitoring root formation in maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth and DD type II.
In humans, there are about 20 different types of collagen that have been expressed from 22 different collagen genes.11 Dentin primarily consists of type I collagen that constitutes 85% to 90% of the organic matrix.12 The noncollageneous proteins evident in dentin are DSPP13 derivatives, namely dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin phospoprotein (DPP), and dentin glycoprotein (DGP).14 It has been proved that DSPP is an important factor for dentin formation.6
DGI is one of the most commonly occurring hereditary conditions of dentin formation, wherein the dental papilla of either or both the primary and the permanent dentition can be affected.9 DGI II is caused by mutation in the DSPP gene (gene map locus 4q21.3), encoding DPP and DSP.15
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis is very essential in differentiating the types of DGI. Both DGI-I and DGI-II have similar clinical, radiographical, and histological findings. However, patients with DGI-I can also suffer from OI, which demands a more comprehensive management. In our case, the patient was diagnosed with DGI-II, as no evidence of OI or other types of DGI was found. As DGI-II is a hereditary disease, to confirm our diagnosis, gene sequencing can be done to investigate the implicated DSPP mutation.4 Also, we could not identify any relevant family history.
Treatment of DGI is focused on several objectives to maintain the dental health and preserve vitality, form and size of the dentition; to provide esthetic appearance; to rehabilitate with a functional dentition; to prevent loss of vertical dimension; to avoid interfering with eruption of the remaining permanent teeth; and to allow normal growth of the facial bones and temporomandibular joint.16 However, in our case, the patient was only treated for her primary complaint. Esthetic treatment modalities were explained to the patient. We have educated the patient to report for follow-up dental visits (every 6 months) to monitor the DGI II condition.
DD is a rare genetic disorder of dentin with unknown etiology. Dentin dysplasia (DD) is an autosomal dominant and hereditary disease caused by mutation of DSPP gene. DSPP mutations have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of dentin diseases without bone involvement, including DGI-II, DGI-III, and DD-II.17 Logan et al. stated that dental papilla is responsible for abnormal root development and that when multiple degenerative foci within the papilla gets calcified, it can lead to reduced growth and obliteration of pulp space.18 Wesley et al. stated that DD is caused by an interaction of odontoblasts with ameloblasts that lead to abnormal differentiation and/or function of the odontoblasts.19
Usually in DD, permanent teeth are normal in color, but the pulp chambers are obliterated by abnormal dentin.7 It is very essential to differentiate between DD type I and DD type II. In DD type I, deposition of amorphous dentine or pulp stones leads to obliteration of root canals,5 and there may be increased mobility.
In DD type II, the deciduous teeth have features similar to that of DGI-II. In the permanent dentition, the teeth are of normal shape, form, and color, while pulp cavities can have thistle tube deformity and pulp stones. In some cases, features characteristic of DGI-II are observed, such as bulbous crowns with cervical constriction, mild discoloration, and pulp obliteration.5,11 In our patient, the clinical crowns were normal in shape with radiological evidence of enlarged pulp chamber extending into roots, which gives “thistle tube appearance”, with normal root length which were typical findings of DD type II.20 Also, teeth did not exhibit mobility.
DD is usually an autosomal dominant condition,5 but in our patient, we could not elicit any associated familial history of DD; thus, our patient in this case report was considered to be a first generation carrier of DD.
Treatment plan for DD is aimed toward preserving the existing teeth, improving occlusion, mastication, and aesthetics for the patient. Regular follow-up and conservative treatment is the primary choice of treatment plan in DD.21 Routine endodontic treatment can be done when indicated. In our patient extraction of root stumps (11 and 21) followed by replacement was planned. Esthetic treatment planning was not considered at this point due to young age of the patient.
DGI-II affected teeth are usually discolored and can present with loss of enamel.3 Tooth wear seen in primary dentition can be restored with stainless steel crowns to prevent further wear and maintain occlusal dimensions.22 Composite resin restorations provide a conservative treatment option for primary teeth23 though the longevity is questionable.10 Missing/non-restorable teeth due to wear and fracture in adult patients can be treated with prosthodontic rehabilitation and dental implants.24 Pulp space5 obliteration in permanent teeth can present complications during endodontic treatment.22
Patients with DD type II can present with tooth discoloration in the primary dentition which may be treated with composite restorations. However, data on composite bonding to teeth with DD type II is scarce. Root canal treatment followed by crowns can be recommended for teeth with pulpal necrosis in permanent teeth with DD type I.21 When teeth are unsalvageable, removal and reconstruction with implant supported prosthesis can be done.25 Patients with DD type II usually do not present with clinical defects in the permanent dentition. Routine follow-up is done to prevent periodontal disease and dental caries in order to retain the teeth as long as possible.
This case report emphasizes the correct diagnosis of hereditary dentin defects such as DGI type II and dentin dysplasia type II.
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